We’ve done a lot with words the past few days, and this is the going to be the final day of wordiness before we move to more complex grammatical material.
Today we’re going to discuss what kinds of words there are, and by that I mean the eight parts of speech. You might already be familiar with them, but it’s always good to recap:
Nouns are people, places, or things.
People: girl, Annie, Mr. Smith, teacher
Places: kitchen, city, Rochester, Spain
Things: book, table, definition, thought, heart
Verbs are words that express actions or states of being.
Being verbs express a state of existence; e.g. he is kind. Doing verbs are actions: sings, jumps, writes.
There are helping verbs, which facilitate tenses. This mostly if not entirely includes verbs built from to be, to have, and to do. Examples: She does like sausage, he is singing, I have been straightforward.
Adjectives describe nouns. Examples: good, beautiful, blue, sweet, short, narrow
Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or phrases, clauses, and even whole sentences. They mostly end in –ly. Examples: almost, nevertheless, thoroughly, suspiciously,sweetly, surreptitiously
Pronouns replace nouns. Examples: he, theirs, its, none, anybody, one, few
Prepositions show relationships between other parts of speech. I like to tuck them into my sentences when I can, but there’s nothing wrong with ending sentences with them. Examples: below, next to, from, until, for, by, out
Conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. Examples: and, while, although, since, so, or
Interjections express emotion. I like to think of them as interrupters, as well, since they’re usually things you say in rapid response to something someone has said or done. Examples: Ouch! Wow! Neat! Oops!
I want to thank Butte College and their TIP sheets for some of the information included in this post. They have a lot more information than I included here, so follow the link and check them out!
We’re going to take a break from grammar over the weekend and return to it on Monday. I’m going to try to keep it to less than five days so we can dive into the fun stuff: figurative language, writing technique, and more encouragement.